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    冬至節的來歷

    2018-11-05 14:42:15 少兒百科 來源:http://www.ssiise.com 瀏覽:

    導讀:   古人認為自冬至起,白晝一天比一天長,冬至的節氣就到啦。煙花美文網www.ssiise.com 小編今天為大家精心準備了冬至節的來歷,希望對大......

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      古人認為自冬至起,白晝一天比一天長,冬至的節氣就到啦。煙花美文網www.ssiise.com 小編今天為大家精心準備了冬至節的來歷,希望對大家有所幫助!

      冬至節的來歷

      冬至過節源于漢代,盛于唐宋,相沿至今。《清嘉錄》甚至有“冬至大如年”之說。這表明古人對冬至十分重視。人們認為冬至是陰陽二氣的自然轉化,是上天賜予的福氣,。漢朝以冬至為“冬節”,官府要舉行祝賀儀式稱為“賀冬”,例行放假。《后漢書》中有這樣的記載:“冬至前后,君子安身靜體,百官絕事,不聽政,擇吉辰而后省事。”所以這天朝庭上下要放假休息,軍隊待命,邊塞閉關,商旅停業,親朋各以美食相贈,相互拜訪,歡樂地過一個“安身靜體”的節日。

      唐、宋時期,冬至是祭天祭祀祖的日子,皇帝在這天要到郊外舉行祭天大典,百姓在這一天要向父母尊長祭拜,現在仍有一些地方在冬至這天過節慶賀。

      冬至節的起源

      冬至是24節氣中最早被制訂的一個,然而多數人并不知道,冬至的起源居然是來自于一次國家層面的都城規劃。早在3000多年前,周公始用土圭法測影,在洛邑測得天下之中的位置,定此為土中,這在當時有著政治意義的舉動,卻成了影響后世幾千年的節日之一。[2]

      周公到洛陽,用土圭法測得洛陽所處的地方即為“天下之中”,然后開始占卜國家社稷的吉地。《尚書·洛誥》記載:周公“朝至于洛師”,對洛陽周邊的幾個地方做了考察,最后確定澗水東、瀍水西、瀍水東皆“惟洛食”(都是興建宗廟社稷的好地方)[3] 。周公通過“土圭測景”選定洛邑基址的史實,被載入了古代典籍,也被后人奉為封邦建國的成法。

      “土圭測景”的目的是找出“土中”(中國的中心)。這種方法的要義是“樹八尺之表,夏至日,景長尺有五寸;冬至日,景長一丈三尺五寸”(即豎起高為8尺的標桿,在夏至日觀測,中午的日影是1.5尺,冬至日中午的日影是13.5尺), “測土深,正日影,求地中,驗四時”。 用這種方法測到的就是“土中”洛陽、“洛邑”的理論位置。

      依周公測影所定的天下之中,周人詳細規劃了滅商后的第一座國家都城,《逸周書·作雒》載:“乃作大邑成周于土中,……南系于洛水,北因于邙山,以為天下之大湊。”[4] 。“定天保,依天室”,國家社稷(都城、宗廟)完成之后,周公在成周明堂制禮作樂,詳細制訂了國家禮儀制度, 據記載,周代以冬十一月為正月,以冬至為歲首過新年,也就是說,周公選取的是經土圭法測得的一年中“日影”最長的一天,為新的一年開始的日子。

      由周到秦,以冬至日當作歲首一直不變。至漢代依然如此,《漢書》有云:“冬至陽氣起,君道長,故賀……”也就是說,人們最初過冬至節是為了慶祝新的一年的到來。古人認為自冬至起,天地陽氣開始興作漸強,代表下一個循環開始,是大吉之日。因此,后來一般春節期間的祭祖、家庭聚餐等習俗,也往往出現在冬至。冬至又被稱為“小年”,一是說明年關將近,余日不多;二是表示冬至的重要性。把冬至作為節日來過源于周代,盛于唐宋,并相沿至今。周歷的正月為夏歷的十一月,因此,周代的正月等于如今的十一月,所以拜歲和賀冬并沒有分別。直到漢武帝采用夏歷后,才把正月和冬至分開。因此,也可以說專門過“冬至節”是自漢代以后才有,盛于唐宋,相沿至今。

      冬至節的傳說

      傳說之一

      過去老北京有“冬至餛飩夏至面”的說法。相傳漢朝時,北方匈奴經常騷擾邊疆,百姓不得安寧。當時匈奴部落中有渾氏和屯氏兩個首領,十分兇殘。百姓對其恨之入骨,于是用肉餡包成角兒,取“渾”與“屯”之音,呼作“餛飩”。恨以食之,并求平息戰亂,能過上太平日子。因最初制成餛飩是在冬至這一天,在冬至這天家家戶戶吃餛飩。

      傳說之二

      冬至吃狗肉的習俗據說是從漢代開始的。相傳,漢高祖劉邦在冬至這一天吃了樊噲煮的狗肉,覺得味道特別鮮美,贊不絕口。從此在民間形成了冬至吃狗肉的習俗。現在的人們紛紛在冬至這一天,吃狗肉、羊肉以及各種滋補食品,以求來年有一個好兆頭。

      傳說之三

      在江南水鄉,有冬至之夜全家歡聚一堂共吃赤豆糯米飯的習俗。相傳,有一位叫共工氏的人,他的兒子不成才,作惡多端,死于冬至這一天,死后變成疫鬼,繼續殘害百姓。但是,這個疫鬼最怕赤豆,于是,人們就在冬至這一天煮吃赤豆飯,用以驅避疫鬼,防災祛病。

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